Types and patterns of innovation tata

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Types and patterns of innovation tata

Heat-treating In principle, heat-treating already takes place when steel is hot-rolled at a particular temperature and cooled afterward at a certain rate, but there are also many heat-treating process facilities specifically designed to produce particular microstructures and properties.

The simplest heat-treating process is normalizing. Holding the steel in the gamma zone transforms the as-rolled or as-cast microstructure into austenitewhich dissolves carbides. Then, during cooling, a very uniform grain is formed, consisting of either pearlite and ferrite or pearlite and cementite, depending on carbon content.

In all heat-treatment operations, the temperatures, holding times, and heating and cooling rates are varied according to the chemical compositionsize, and shape of the steel. In general, alloy steels, which have a lower heat conductivity than carbon steels, are heated more slowly to avoid internal stresses.

Annealing To make steel ductile for subsequent forming operations, an annealing treatment is applied. In annealing, the steel is usually held for several hours at several degrees below Ar1 shown by the P-S-K line in the figure and then slowly cooled.

This precipitates and coagulates the carbides and results in large ferrite crystals. Annealing is performed in an inert or reducing atmosphere to prevent any oxidation of the steel surface. In batch annealing of cold-rolled strip, for example, several coils are set on a base and on top of one another.

Then they are covered with a shell made of heat-resistant steel, which is sealed on the bottom and holds the inert gas during annealing. A gas-fired bell furnace is then lowered by a crane over this cover for heating.

The total processing time, including cooling, may be 50 to hours, depending on furnace load and steel grade. In a different system, the cold-rolled strip is pulled through an metre-high furnace with the strip moving up and down between many top and bottom rolls.

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These continuous-annealing furnaces are usually heated by gas-fired radiation tubes in order to separate combustion gases from the inert atmosphere surrounding the strip.

The entry and exit sections of continuous-annealing lines are built, as on other strip-processing lines, to allow an uninterrupted and constant travel at, say, metres per minute of the strip through the process section—in this case, the heating and cooling zones.

The entry group has two uncoiling reels, a cross-shear, welding equipment for joining two strips, and a strip accumulator. The latter is often a looping tower, which supplies the process section above with strip at constant speed while welding is done at the entry section. The exit group works in a similar fashion, with a looping tower and two reels; it also cuts samples and substandard portions out of the strip.

Continuous-annealing lines are often metres long, and the strip between uncoiler and recoiler is more than one kilometre in length. Strip annealed this way is not as soft as batch-annealed steel—a disadvantage compensated for by using ultralow-carbon steels—but it does have operating advantages in that annealing of one coil may take only one hour and the mechanical and surface properties of the strip are very uniform.

Quenching and tempering The most common heat treatment for plates, tubular products, and rails is the quench-and-temper process. Large plates are heated in roller-type or walking-beam furnaces, quenched in special chambers, and then tempered in a separate low-temperature furnace.

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Types and patterns of innovation tata

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Types and patterns of innovation tata

The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock driven, register based, digital-integrated circuit that accepts binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output.

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