Chapter Three The Jewish Question To illustrate the history of the Jewish people from its earliest beginnings down through the ages to the present day, as seen and depicted by the Jewish mind itself, we give the following account from the Chicago Tribune, July 4, It was listened to almost in silence by aboutpeople, the vast majority being Jews.
Alexander Nevsky in the Golden Horde. After the fall of the Khazars in the 10th century, the middle Volga came to be dominated by the mercantile state of Volga Bulgariathe last vestige of Greater Bulgaria centered at Phanagoria.
The Mongols held Russia and Volga Bulgaria in sway from their western capital at Sarai one of the largest cities of the medieval world. The princes of southern and eastern Russia had to pay tribute to the Mongols of the Golden Horde, commonly called Tatars ;  but in return they received charters authorizing them to act as deputies to the khans.
In general, the princes were allowed considerable freedom to rule as they wished,  while the Russian Orthodox Church even experienced a spiritual revival under the guidance of Metropolitan Alexis and Sergius of Radonezh.
To the Orthodox Church and most princes, the fanatical Northern Crusaders seemed a greater threat to the Russian way The tsars or lenin between 1855 1956 essay life than the Mongols.
Alexander obtained Mongol protection and assistance in fighting invaders from the west who, hoping to profit from the Russian collapse since the Mongol invasions, tried to grab territory and convert the Russians to Roman Catholicism. Under Mongol occupation, Russia also developed its postal road network, census, fiscal system, and military organization.
Grand Duchy of Moscow Rise of Moscow[ edit ] During the reign of DanielMoscow was little more than a small timber fort lost in the forests of Central Rus' Daniil Aleksandrovichthe youngest son of Alexander Nevsky, founded the principality of Moscow known as Muscovy in English which first cooperated with and ultimately expelled the Tatars from Russia.
Well-situated in the central river system of Russia and surrounded by protective forests and marshes, Moscow was at first only a vassal of Vladimir, but soon it absorbed its parent state.
A major factor in the ascendancy of Moscow was the cooperation of its rulers with the Mongol overlords, who granted them the title of Grand Prince of Moscow and made them agents for collecting the Tatar tribute from the Russian principalities.
The principality's prestige was further enhanced when it became the center of the Russian Orthodox Church. Its head, the Metropolitanfled from Kiev to Vladimir in and a few years later established the permanent headquarters of the Church in Moscow under the original title of Kiev Metropolitan.
By the middle of the 14th century, the power of the Mongols was declining, and the Grand Princes felt able to openly oppose the Mongol yoke. Inat Kulikovo on the Don Riverthe Mongols were defeated,  and although this hard-fought victory did not end Tatar rule of Russia, it did bring great fame to the Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy.
Moscow's leadership in Russia was now firmly based and by the middle of the 14th century its territory had greatly expanded through purchase, war, and marriage. The most successful practitioner of this process was Ivan III who laid the foundations for a Russian national state.
Ivan competed with his powerful northwestern rival, the Grand Duchy of Lithuaniafor control over some of the semi-independent Upper Principalities in the upper Dnieper and Oka River basins.
A contemporary of the Tudors and other "new monarchs" in Western Europe, Ivan proclaimed his absolute sovereignty over all Russian princes and nobles. Refusing further tribute to the Tatars, Ivan initiated a series of attacks that opened the way for the complete defeat of the declining Golden Hordenow divided into several Khanates and hordes.
Ivan and his successors sought to protect the southern boundaries of their domain against attacks of the Crimean Tatars and other hordes. The manor system provided a basis for an emerging cavalry based army. In this way, internal consolidation accompanied outward expansion of the state.
By the 16th century, the rulers of Moscow considered the entire Russian territory their collective property.
Various semi-independent princes still claimed specific territories,  but Ivan III forced the lesser princes to acknowledge the grand prince of Moscow and his descendants as unquestioned rulers with control over military, judicial, and foreign affairs.
Gradually, the Russian ruler emerged as a powerful, autocratic ruler, a tsar. Biographer Fennell concludes that his reign was "militarily glorious and economically sound," and especially points to his territorial annexations and his centralized control over local rulers.
However, Fennell, the leading British specialist on Ivan III, argues that his reign was also "a period of cultural depression and spiritual barrenness. Freedom was stamped out within the Russian lands. By his bigoted anti-Catholicism Ivan brought down the curtain between Russia and the west.
For the sake of territorial aggrandizement he deprived his country of the fruits of Western learning and civilization. The development of the Tsar's autocratic powers reached a peak during the reign of Ivan IV —known as "Ivan the Terrible".
Through these conquests, Russia acquired a significant Muslim Tatar population and emerged as a multiethnic and multiconfessional state. Also around this period, the mercantile Stroganov family established a firm foothold in the Urals and recruited Russian Cossacks to colonise Siberia.
In the zone known as the oprichninaIvan's followers carried out a series of bloody purges of the feudal aristocracy whom he suspected of treachery after the betrayal of prince Kurbskyculminating in the Massacre of Novgorod in This combined with the military losses, epidemics, and poor harvests so weakened Russia that the Crimean Tatars were able to sack central Russian regions and burn down Moscow in The country rocked by internal chaos also attracted several waves of interventions by the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Moscow revolted but riots there were brutally suppressed and the city was set on fire. Government functionaries continued to serve, regardless of the ruler's legitimacy or the faction controlling the throne.
Accession of the Romanovs and early rule[ edit ] Election of year-old Mikhail Romanovthe first Tsar of the Romanov dynasty In Februarywith the chaos ended and the Poles expelled from Moscow, a national assemblycomposed of representatives from fifty cities and even some peasants, elected Michael Romanovthe young son of Patriarch Filaretto the throne.
The Romanov dynasty ruled Russia until The immediate task of the new dynasty was to restore peace. Fortunately for Moscow, its major enemies, the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth and Swedenwere engaged in a bitter conflict with each other, which provided Russia the opportunity to make peace with Sweden in and to sign a truce with the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth in Recovery of lost territories began in the midth century, when the Khmelnitsky Uprising —57 in Ukraine against Polish rule brought about the Treaty of Pereyaslavconcluded between Russia and the Ukrainian Cossacks.
According to the treaty, Russia granted protection to the Cossacks state in Left-bank Ukraineformerly under Polish control.Chapter Three. The Jewish Question.
To illustrate the history of the Jewish people from its earliest beginnings down through the ages to the present day, as seen and depicted by the Jewish mind itself, we give the following account from the Chicago Tribune, July 4, Free Essay: Lenin had a greater impact on Russia’s economy and society than any other Ruler.
How far do you agree with this view of the period from to. Essay about Assess the View That the Tsars Preferred Repression to Reform in the Period to Assess the view that the Tsars preferred repression to reform in the period to While the reforms between and strongly suggest the Tsars preferring a policy of reform rather than repression, the unexpected .
Was Stalin The Most Successful Ruler of Russia in the Period ? Essay Sample.
At first sight, it seems unlikely that Stalin was the most successful ruler of Russia in the whole of the years, when taking into account the large amount of the Tsars reforms, in comparison to the amount of people Stalin killed and repressed. Stalin and Lenin both built on the structure that the Tsars created, although it was not nearly enough to stabilize Russia’s economy, it was a start.
We will write a custom essay sample on The Tsars or Lenin between specifically for you. The History of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs and the Finno-Ugric peoples. The traditional beginning of Russian history is the establishment of Kievan Rus', the first united Eastern Slavic state, in The state adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in , beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Orthodox Slavic culture for the next millennium.