Old Syrian; corresponding to the Middle Bronze.
A interesting model of a rail-chariot with similar design even if with four-spoke wheels has been found from the Sardinia Island Italy. This specimen is more likely dated around BC. A miniature model of chariot wheels with several spokes, very similar to the above mentioned fragment from Cyprus and Kynos, has been also found in Mycenae.
This further representation shows that the Achaean do not utilized only the four-spoke wheel on their chariots.
The pictorial scene painted on the preserved fragments shows two ears and part of a mane of a horse on the rim fragment and what is probably the hindquarter and long tail of the same horse on the body fragment.
Behind the horse it is visible the lower part of a chariot with a carefully drawn four-spoked wheel and behind the chariot the torso, arms and upper legs of a tall warrior carring a sword at his waist. The box of this chariot is rendered with an irregular network, which could indicate that it was made of wickerwork.
The small dots at the base in front of the box may be part of a superimposed decoration. The box has a curved outline at the ear, and judging from the space left for it, it might have had the same height as the warrior or even slightly higher.
As a consequence to this, the box seems to have been covered. Contrary to the other known chariot boxes the one represented on this krater reaches the ground at the rear, an impratical solution for a chariot box if the space is not intended to be used.
If it is depicting a canopied chariot, the person being transported is sitting down and the space could have been for the leg.
Thus the box may actually have been open both at the rear and front. The scene may represent the moment when the coach and horse is standind still and the box reaches the ground.
A confortable means of land transport for someone who needed an armed warrior for protection in insecure surroundings and insecure times? Unfortunately, this chariot type is not well documented because the scenes in which it is depicted are quite fragmentary or very schematic.
As a result also for this rare type of chariot its exact features are difficult to reconstruct. A possible battle scene seems represented in this battered stele from Mycenae where is possible to identify a "battle wagon" four-wheeled in the Near Eastern fashion, with the warrior apparently plunging head first to the ground behind his charioteer.
This stele dated around BC represent the earliest image of four-wheeled chariot utilized in the Greek mainland. The scene is representing a bow-armed man hunting a deer from his chariot.
A strange four-wheeled vagon with three men is also represented on a larnax from Episkopi dated around BC. The solid painted circle on stem held by two of the figures in the chariot could represent parasols. Beautiful representation of four-wheeled vagon from Palaikastro Crete of uncertain datation.
In the Achaean to Proto-Geometric period cemetery of Voudeni some fragments from a large krater dated around BC show a four-wheeled chariot.
In these representation the four-wheeled chariots is utilized by a warriors equipped with low profile crested helmet and medium size round shield. Four-wheeled chariot is well represented in this crater fragment from Crete dated around BC.
In this reprentation the lower draft pole is also visible as well as the frontal element of the cab. As for the rail-chariot also the small four-wheeled chariot continued to be used in Greek after the end of Bronze Age being attested also during the Geometric period.
Some chariot are fully equipped with yokes, bridles and other necessary fittings; but others are apparently stripped down, and in one case we have an entry which may mean "reduced to constituent members" me-ta-ke-ku-me-na.
The main items listed in addition to the framework are: Some are said to be painted red phoinikiai or vermilion miltowessai. Most of the fully equipped vehicles are single or in pairs even if the numbers of plain chariot frames are much larger.
The wheels are also listed in considerable numbers. On the large table Sg from Knossos a total of at least chariot-frames and pairs of wheels are listed. It would seem likely that as well as a number of luxury vehicles, Knossos could put in the field around chariots.
In addition to these inventories of chariot, which come mainly from the arsenal building outside the palace proper, we have the remains of a series of small tablets Sc from showing fully equipped chariots with the wheels in positon. Few of these tablets are complete indeed they can be interpreted as follows.
The first word is apparently always a man's name whether he is the owner or the driver remains unclear. Then follows a sign for an armour, with the numeral 2, a complete chariot with the numeral 1, and a pair of horses.Palestine, area of the eastern Mediterranean region, comprising parts of modern Israel and the Palestinian territories of the Gaza Strip (along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea) and the West Bank (the area west of the Jordan River)..
The term Palestine has been associated variously and sometimes controversially with this small region, which some have asserted also includes Jordan. The Late Bronze Age collapse involved a dark-age transition period in the Near East, Asia Minor, Aegean region, North Africa, Caucasus, Syria during this time was known as "The land of the Amurru".
Before and during the Bronze Age Collapse. From Syria to Egypt, people in the Middle Bronze Age buried their dead with elaborate rituals which shared many common traits. Anatolian art and architecture, the art and architecture of ancient Anatolian civilizations..
Anatolia is the name that is currently applied to the whole Asian territory of modern Turkey. Its western half is a broad peninsula connecting the continent of Asia with Europe. The chariot, probably invented in the Near East, became one of the most innovative weaponry in Bronze Age warfare.
It seems that the Achaeans adopt the chariot for use in warfare in the late 16th century BC as attested in some gravestones as well as seal and ring. Drews work along with N.K. Sandars "Sea Peoples" stands as one of the definitive texts on the Late Bronze Age collapse and rightly so since he covers every theory out there.