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Biological Explanations for Schizophrenia. Psychological Explanations for Schizophrenia. Exam Advice You MUST revise everything - because the exam board could choose any question, however, it does make sense to spend more time on those topics which have not appeared for a while.
These refer to the latest editions of the two classification systems.
Positive Symptoms an excess or distortion of normal functions: Positive symptoms are an excess or distortion of normal functions, for example hallucinations, delusions and thought disturbances such as thought insertion.
Imagined stimuli could involve any of the senses.
There are also delusions of being paranoid, worrying that people are out to get them. Negative Symptoms where normal functions are limited: Negative symptoms are a diminution or loss of normal functions such as psychomotor disturbances, lack of volition, disturbances of mood and thought disorders.
The Nature of Difficulties in Learning English by the Students at Secondary School Level in Pakistan. About Lucy Johnstone. Lucy Johnstone is a UK clinical psychologist, trainer, speaker and writer and a long-standing critic of biomedical model psychiatry. She has worked in Adult Mental Health settings for many years, alternating with academic posts. The history of statistics in the modern sense dates from the midth century, with the term statistics itself coined in in German, although there have been changes to the interpretation of the word over time. The development of statistics is intimately connected on the one hand with the development of sovereign states, particularly European .
Broadcasting is a thought disorder whereby a person believes their thoughts are being broadcast to others, for example over the radio or through TV. Alogia - aka speech poverty — is a thought disorder were correct words are used but with little meaning. Lack of volition i.
They engage in no self motivated behavior. Their get up and go has got up and gone! Classification and diagnosis does have advantages as it allows doctors to communicate more effectively about a patient and use similar terminology when discussing them.
In addition, they can then predict the outcome of the disorder and suggest related treatment to help the patient. Scheff points out that diagnosis classification labels the individual, and this can have many adverse effects, such as a self-fulfilling prophecy patients may begin to act how they are expected to actand lower self-esteem.
Ethics — do the benefits of classification care, treatment, safety outweigh the costs possible misdiagnosis, mistreatment, loss of rights and responsibility, prejudice due to labelling. Reliability and Validity in Diagnosis and Classification of Schizophrenia with reference to co-morbidity, culture and gender bias and symptom overlap.
Reliability - AO1 For the classification system to be reliable, differfent clinicians using the same system e. DSM should arrive at the same diagnosis for the same individual. AO3 Diagnosis of schizophrenia is difficult as the practitioner has no physical signs but only symptoms what the patient reports to make a decision on.
This demonstrates the high reliability of the clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia using up-to-date classification. Comorbidity describes people who suffer from two or more mental disorders. For example, schizophrenia and depression are often found together. This makes it more difficult to confidently diagnose schizophrenia.
Comorbidity occurs because the symptoms of different disorders overlap. For example, major depression and schizophrenia both involve very low levels of motivation.
This creates problems of reliability. Does the low motivation reflect depression or schizophrenia, or both? Loring and Powell found that some behavior which was regarded as psychotic in males was not regarded as psychotic in females.
Validity - AO1 For the classification system to be valid it should be meaningful and classify a real pattern of symptoms, which result from a real underlying cause. AO3 The validity of schizophrenia as a single disorder is questioned by many. This is a useful point to emphasise in any essay on the disorder.
Since their are problems with the validity of diagnois classification, unsuitable treatment may be administered, sometimes on an involuntary basis. This raises practical and ethical issues when selecting different types of tretment.
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Section 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Schizophrenia. Psychologists use the DSM and ICD to diagnose a patient with schizophrenia. In order to diagnose Schizophrenia the Mental Health Profession developed the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) still used today as a method of classifying mental disorders (particularly in the USA).