Neruda on January 2,
Cloning We live in a brave new world in which reproductive technologies are ravaging as well as replenishing families. This new eugenics is simply the latest version of the age-old quest to make human beings--in fact, humanity as a whole--the way we want them to be: It includes our efforts to be rid of unwanted human beings through abortion and euthanasia.
It more recently is focusing on our growing ability to understand and manipulate our genetic code, which directs the formation of many aspects of who we are, for better and for worse. We aspire to complete control over the code, though at this point relatively little is possible. This backdrop can help us understand the great fascination with human cloning today.
It promises to give us a substantial measure of power over the genetic makeup of our offspring. We cannot control their code exactly, but the first major step in that direction is hugely appealing: You can have a child whose genetic code is exactly like your own.
Admittedly, in our most honest moments we would improve a few things about ourselves. So the larger agenda here remains complete genetic control. But human cloning represents one concrete step in that direction, and the forces pushing us from behind to take that step are tremendous.
These forces are energized, as we will see, by the very ways we look at life and justify our actions. But before examining such forces, we need a clearer view of human cloning itself.
The Rising Prospect of Human Cloning It was no longer ago than when the president of the United States first challenged the nation and charged his National Bioethics Advisory Commission 2 to give careful thought to how the United States should proceed regarding human cloning.
Attention to this issue was spurred by the reported cloning of a large mammal--a sheep--in a new way. The method involved not merely splitting an early-stage embryo to produce identical twins.
Rather, it entailed producing a nearly exact genetic replica of an already existing adult. Stimulated to divide by the application of electrical energy, this egg--now embryo--is guided by its new genetic material to develop as a being who is genetically almost identical to the being from which the nucleus was taken.
This process was reportedly carried out in a sheep to produce the sheep clone named Dolly 3 but attention quickly shifted to the prospects for cloning human beings by which I will mean here and throughout, cloning by nuclear transfer. Quickly people began to see opportunities for profit and notoriety.
Byfor example, scientist Richard Seed had announced intentions to set up a Human Clone Clinic--first in Chicago, then in ten to twenty locations nationally, then in five to six locations internationally. Such research has been slowed in the United States since the president and then Congress withheld federal government funds from research that subjects embryos to risk for non-therapeutic purposes.
Stem cells can treat many illnesses and can have the capacity to develop into badly needed body parts such as tissues and organs. One way to obtain stem cells is to divide an early stage embryo into its component cells--thereby destroying the embryonic human being.
Inhis newly-formed Council on Bioethics raised serious questions about even this form of embryonic stem cell research, through the Council was divided on this matter. While embryo and stem cell research are very important issues, they are distinct ethically from the question of reproducing human beings through cloning.
Reproduction by cloning is the specific focus of this essay. While no scientifically verifiable birth of a human clone has yet been reported, the technology and scientific understanding are already in place to make such an event plausible at any time now.
There is an urgent need to think through the relevant ethical issues. To begin with, is it acceptable to refer to human beings produced by cloning technology as "clones"? It would seem so, as long as there does not become a stigma attached to that term that is not attached to more cumbersome expressions like "a person who is the result of cloning" or "someone created through the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer.
So it can be that a person "from cloning" is a clone. We must be ready to abandon this term, however, if it becomes a label that no longer meets certain ethical criteria.
In order to address the ethics of human cloning itself, we need to understand why people would want to do it in the first place. People often respond to the prospect of human cloning in two ways. They are squeamish about the idea--a squeamishness Leon Kass has argued we should take very seriously.Robert Lanza is considered one of the leading scientists in the world.
He is currently Head of Astellas Global Regenerative Medicine, and is Chief Scientific Officer of the Astellas Institute for Regenerative Medicine and Adjunct Professor at Wake Forest University School of Medicine.
His current research focuses on stem cells and regenerative medicine and their potential to provide therapies. SunBow began to transcribe new Messages to Humanity as given by Sasquatch Elder Kamooh on October 16, The completed chapters will be posted here as they are written.
Papal Teaching. No one can fail to see the dramatic and distressing consequences of this pragmatism that conceives of truth and justice as malleable qualities that human beings themselves can shape.
The Benefits of Human Cloning In recent years, many new breakthroughs in the areas of science and technology have been discovered.
A lot of these discoveries have been beneficial to scientific community and to the people of the world. One of the newest breakthroughs is the ability to clone. Ever. Pros and Cons of Human Cloning One of the great ethical debates of our era is the subject of human cloning.
Cloning technology is . Originally published in with the launch of The Singularity Is Near.. Questions and Answers. So what is the Singularity? Within a quarter century, nonbiological intelligence will match the range and subtlety of human intelligence.