Frequency response FR This measurement tells you over what frequency range output level for an audio component will remain reasonably constant either within a specified decibel range, or no more than a certain number of dB from the amplitude at 1k Hz. Some audio components such as tone controls are designed to adjust the loudness of signal content at particular frequencies, e. Preamplifiers may also contain equalizersfilters for example to play LPs requiring RIAA frequency response correction, in which case the specification may describe how closely the response matches the standard.
Advances in understanding, theory and measurement must necessarily proceed hand in hand. A companion article in this publication sets forth the urgent need for new theory in economics. This article sets forth the complementary need for new measures.
The stakes are high and the choice is ours. The challenge is to derive more appropriate indicators to reflect real, sustainable economic welfare, social development and human wellbeing. The attributes that have made GDP so successful are often overlooked — it provides clear objectives for policy and decision-making.
The index is applied to assess the economic performance of select countries from Tools and Measures Human beings are distinguished from other life forms by their unique ability to fashion tools which extend our powers of consciousness beyond the reach of our senses and our powers of execution beyond the limits of strength, endurance, space and time imposed by our physical bodies.
Tools are an instrument for social evolution. Language is a tool which enables us to formulate original ideas, communicate our inmost thoughts and feelings, record events for posterity, transmit knowledge down through the ages, and exchange ideas over vast expanses of time and space.
The efficiency of our tools is an index of our social development. Measurement is another remarkable human ability. Modern medicine could not exist without the thermometer, stethoscope, sphygmomanometer and glucometer, along with measures for blood cell count, hemoglobin, cholesterol, and countless other metrics.
Today every food ingredient is carefully measured for its exact nutritional content. It is both a tool and a measure. But unlike other measures that are confined to measuring a single dimension or quality, money has the capacity of assigning value to almost anything material or immaterial — physical objects, human labor, social status, information, obedience, loyalty and sometimes even love.
Coinage enabled ancient kingdoms to become military and economic powers, because it facilitated standardized valuation of products and services for the financing and maintenance of huge armies. The concept of zero was unknown to the Greeks and Romans.
Developed independently in India and Mexico, it reached Europe via Arabia only in the 10th century. One need only try adding and multiplying Roman numerals to realize how greatly the introduction of Hindu-Arabic numerals, the zero, and the decimal place enhanced the capacity for accounting and the growth of trade.
Combined with double-entry bookkeeping, they spurred the commercial revolution in 13th century Italy, facilitating the precise calculation of capital and profit. The Domesday Book is a record of the first known numerical census conducted by William I of England in to identify arable lands, livestock, fisheries and other sources of national wealth as a basis for improved tax collection.
The first US census was conducted in Today economics employs a wide range of indispensable measuring tools, including GDP, the consumer price index, interest rate, money supply, exchange rate and the unemployment rate. While the general public may regard these tools as accurate measures of economic reality, economists recognize that they are in fact only rough, approximate indicators designed to reflect economic reality rather than accurately measure it.
Right measurement is a powerful instrument for social progress, which is why efforts are constantly being made to improve their power and precision.
The atomic clock has replaced the sundial, hourglass and pendulum. DNA fingerprinting has largely replaced hand fingerprinting as a precise means for identifying human beings.Audio system measurements are made for several purposes.
Designers take measurements so that they can specify the performance of a piece of equipment. Maintenance engineers make them to ensure equipment is still working to specification, or to ensure that the cumulative defects of an audio path are within limits considered .
We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. alphabetnyc.com is the Federal Government's premier electronic source for the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). It contains Product Service Codes (PSC), the Federal Service Contract Inventory, FAR Archives, eBook versions of the FAR, optimized search engine for the FAR and other resources to improve Acquisition for contracting .
In education. Performance measurement has been defined by Neely as "the process of quantifying the efficiency and effectiveness of past actions", while Moullin defines it as "the process of evaluating how well organisations are managed and the value they deliver for customers and other stakeholders”.
Discussion on the relative merits of these definitions appeared in several articles in the. The Air Emission Measurement Center (EMC) provides information on test methods for measuring pollutants from smokestacks and other industrial sources.
This website compiles the test methods available for emission measurement. Contact EMC staff .
All original material on Measurement Lab is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike International License. M-Lab is a collaborative effort led by researchers in partnership with companies and other alphabetnyc.comorative effort led by researchers in partnership with companies and other institutions.