Introduction One of the major claims made regarding qualitative methods is that they diverge from scientific explanation models in terms of the need for hypothesis testing. A scientific hypothesis is based on a background theory, typically assuming the form of a proposition whose validity depends on empirical confirmation.
How sophisticated is the usage: Each one of them seems equally reasonable and depends on the objective pursued by the analyst". Instead, they chosen to use the term "digital inclusion", providing a definition: Digital Inclusion refers to the activities necessary to ensure that all individuals and communities, including the most disadvantaged, have access to and use of Information and Communication Technologies ICTs.
This includes 5 elements: Given the increasing number of such devices, some have concluded that the digital divide among individuals has increasingly been closing as the result of a natural and almost automatic process.
For example, "the massive diffusion of narrow-band Internet and mobile phones during the late s" increased digital inequality, as well as "the initial introduction of broadband DSL and cable modems during — increased levels of inequality".
As shown by the Figure, during the mids, communication capacity was more unequally distributed than during the late s, when only fixed-line phones existed. The most recent increase in digital equality stems from the massive diffusion of the latest digital innovations i. In relative terms, the fixed-line capacity divide was even worse during the introduction of broadband Internet at the middle of the first decade of the s, when the OECD counted with 20 times more capacity per capita than the rest of the world.
The International Telecommunications Union concludes that "the bit becomes a unifying variable enabling comparisons and aggregations across different kinds of communication technologies".
There are at least three factors at play: More than just accessibility, individuals need to know how to make use of the information and communication tools once they exist within a community. There are also varying levels of connectivity in rural, suburban, and urban areas. Obtaining access to ICTs and using them actively has been linked to a number of demographic and socio-economic characteristics: As for geographic location, people living in urban centers have more access and show more usage of computer services than those in rural areas.
Gender was previously thought to provide an explanation for the digital divide, many thinking ICT were male gendered, but controlled statistical analysis has shown that income, education and employment act as confounding variables and that women with the same level of income, education and employment actually embrace ICT more than men see Women and ICT4D.
For example, the digital divide in Germany is unique because it is not largely due to difference in quality of infrastructure. In research, while each explanation is examined, others must be controlled in order to eliminate interaction effects or mediating variables but these explanations are meant to stand as general trends, not direct causes.
Each component can be looked at from different angles, which leads to a myriad of ways to look at or define the digital divide. For example, measurements for the intensity of usage, such as incidence and frequency, vary by study.
Some report usage as access to Internet and ICTs while others report usage as having previously connected to the Internet. Based on different answers to the questions of who, with which kinds of characteristics, connects how and why, to what there are hundreds of alternatives ways to define the digital divide.
The first of three reports is entitled "Falling Through the Net: Defining the Digital Divide" This report will help clarify which Americans are falling further behind, so that we can take concrete steps to redress this gap.
The digital divide is commonly defined as being between the "haves" and "have-nots. The Facebook Divide, Facebook native, Facebook immigrants, and Facebook left-behind are concepts for social and business management research.
Facebook Immigrants are utilizing Facebook for their accumulation of both bonding and bridging social capital. Therefore, access is a necessary but not sufficient condition for overcoming the digital divide.
Access to ICT meets significant challenges that stem from income restrictions. Furthermore, even though individuals might be capable of accessing the Internet, many are thwarted by barriers to entry such as a lack of means to infrastructure or the inability to comprehend the information that the Internet provides.
Lack of adequate infrastructure and lack of knowledge are two major obstacles that impede mass connectivity. These barriers limit individuals' capabilities in what they can do and what they can achieve in accessing technology.
Some individuals have the ability to connect, but they do not have the knowledge to use what information ICTs and Internet technologies provide them.
This leads to a focus on capabilities and skills, as well as awareness to move from mere access to effective usage of ICT.Grandma's Experiences Leave a Mark on Your Genes. Your ancestors' lousy childhoods or excellent adventures might change your personality, bequeathing anxiety or resilience by altering the epigenetic expressions of genes in the brain.
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Professor Michael Woodford’s Cognitive and Behavioral Economics Initiative is one of several faculty led research initiatives. We review the recent academic and policy literature on bank loan loss provisioning.
Among other things, we observe that there exist some interaction between LLPs and existing prudential, accounting, institutional, cultural, religious, tax and fiscal frameworks which differ across countries; and we find that managerial discretion in provisioning is strongly linked to income smoothing, capital.
Free brazil papers, essays, and research papers. Economics Assessment of Brazil - Brazil is one of the most prominent emerging economies in the world, indeed Brazil forms part of the BRIC group of emerging economies alongside Russia, India and China.