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Portland, Oregon Summary Widespread use of fluoride has been a major factor in the decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries i. When used appropriately, fluoride is both safe and effective in preventing and controlling dental caries.
Both health-care professionals and the public have sought guidance on selecting the best way to provide and receive fluoride. During the late s, CDC convened a work group to develop recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States.
This report includes these recommendations, as well as a critical analysis of the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of fluoride modalities in preventing and controlling dental caries, b ordinal grading of the quality of the evidence, and c assessment of the strength of each recommendation.
Because frequent exposure to small amounts of fluoride each day will best reduce the risk for dental caries in all age groups, the work group recommends that all persons drink water with an optimal fluoride concentration and brush their teeth twice daily with fluoride toothpaste.
For persons at high risk for dental caries, additional fluoride measures might be needed. Measured use of fluoride modalities is particularly appropriate during the time of anterior tooth enamel development i.
The recommendations in this report guide dental and other health-care providers, public health officials, policy makers, and the public in the use of fluoride to achieve maximum protection against dental caries while using resources efficiently and reducing the likelihood of enamel fluorosis.
The recommendations address public health and professional practice, self-care, consumer product industries and health agencies, and further research. Adoption of these recommendations could further reduce dental caries in the United States and save public and private resources. Fluoride reduces the incidence of dental caries and slows or reverses the progression of existing lesions i.
Although pit and fissure sealants, meticulous oral hygiene, and appropriate dietary practices contribute to caries prevention and control, the most effective and widely used approaches have included fluoride use.
Although this decline is a major public health achievement, the burden of disease is still considerable in all age groups. Because many fluoride modalities are effective, inexpensive, readily available, and can be used in both private and public health settings, their use is likely to continue.
Fluoride is the ionic form of the element fluorine, the 13th most abundant element in the earth's crust. Fluoride is negatively charged and combines with positive ions e. Such fluorides are released into the environment naturally in both water and air. Fluoride compounds also are produced by some industrial processes that use the mineral apatite, a mixture of calcium phosphate compounds.
In humans, fluoride is mainly associated with calcified tissues i. Fluoride's ability to inhibit or even reverse the initiation and progression of dental caries is well documented.
The first use of adjusted fluoride in water for caries control began in and in the United States and Canada, when the fluoride concentration was adjusted in the drinking water supplying four communities Public Health Service PHS developed recommendations in the s and s regarding fluoride concentrations in public water supplies.
At that time, public health officials assumed that drinking water would be the major source of fluoride for most U. The success of water fluoridation in preventing and controlling dental caries led to the development of fluoride-containing products, including toothpaste i.
In addition, processed beverages, which constitute an increasing proportion of the diets of many U. Much of the research on the efficacy and effectiveness of individual fluoride modalities in preventing and controlling dental caries was conducted beforewhen dental caries was more common and more severe.SECTION.
1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase.
In general, an acronym made up solely from the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered in all capital letters (NATO from North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an exception would be ASEAN for Association of Southeast Asian Nations).
The National Minimum Drinking Age Act of Legislation concerning the legal minimum drinking age in the United States can be traced back to the days of Prohibition.
In response to these findings, many states raised the minimum legal drinking age to . In the old days, anyone on active duty could consume alcohol on military installations, regardless of the legal drinking age off-base.
However, in the mids, advocacy groups, such as MADD (Mothers Against Drunken Drivers) lobbied Congress to change this. Publisher of academic books and electronic media publishing for general interest and in a wide variety of fields. Ho Chi Minh, the enemy of the United States in the Vietnam War, was initially a friend.
He worked with U.S. special forces in rescuing downed American airmen and providing intelligence on Japanese movements during the last year of World War II.