It became widespread in the first half of the 20th century, as organizations tried to address issues of industrial management, including specialization, efficiency, higher quality, cost reduction and management-worker relationships. While other management theories have evolved since then, classical management approaches are still used today by many small-business owners to build their companies and to succeed.
But few appreciate how their seductive allure often obscures key elements that should be considered. Shutterstock Images It can be quite revealing to tune in to the kind of imagery people use when talking.
Consider, for example, how people speak about the current economic crisis. Some view the economy as a complex machine, so fuel injection makes good sense to them, or lubrication to get the economic wheels going again.
Others view the economy as a sick person addicted to debt, oil, special interests and government programs, in which going cold turkey makes more sense. Yet others view the economy as an unruly forest or garden that grows and adapts to survival pressures; so pruning is in order at times. Note how the role of leaders, players, strategies, regulations etc can differ markedly across sports.
Seductive simplicity The great benefit of metaphors is that they simplify; each economic metaphor above touches on an important aspect by analogy. The downside, however, is that a strong metaphor can create a false sense of understanding. For example, consider the widely used product life-cycle concept in marketing.
This biological metaphor suggests that products naturally arise, grow, mature and die, just as individuals do. And once the product strategy is adjusted to reflect this presumed stage of decline, resources may be withdrawn and decline will quickly follow as a self-fulfilling hypothesis.
Of course, if decline has truly set in, this may be the smart move so money can be spent more wisely elsewhere; why fight a losing battle? Should products die or adapt? Procter and Gamble as well as many other companies, however, reject the product life-cycle metaphor as unduly self-limiting.
Rather than viewing the product as a single organism proceeding through its life stages, they view the product as the species itself.
So, the product must be adapted to changing circumstances to remain viable. In the product life-cycle view, products must be allowed to die. Are you a master or prisoner of metaphors? To avoid being imprisoned by poor metaphors, you need to do the following: Be sensitive to what metaphors and mental imagery people use; does the boss always speak in football lingo or perhaps in family terms?
Try to consider alterative metaphors. Recognize that most metaphors highlight aspects of the problem that are valid and deserving of attention as shown above, this is the easy part The harder challenge is to figure out where a given metaphors hides, distorts or totally misses the boat e.
Once you understand the pros and cons of various metaphors, select one that best highlights the issues most essential to the problem and run with it If no single metaphor can do justice to the crux of matter, try to think in multiple metaphors and integrate their complementary suggestions.
If you want to test yourself, try to answer questions 3 to 6 above. Nov 21, More from Inc.The Eight Metaphors of Organization. July 13, By Venkatesh Rao.
Organization as Machine: This is the most simplistic metaphor, and is the foundation of Taylorism.
If the Machine metaphor is the dominant one, this one is the market-leading alternative metaphor. Centrifugation is the process of using a centrifuge to spin a liquid that has particles suspended in it, so as to cause the particles in suspension to be "thrown" out .
The cyborgs out performed any animal or machine at that time (by a long shot — sort of like comparing throwing stones at a lion vs.
The big advantage of BCIs are that, given a way to better record and distinguish the signals our bran generates, almost everything will eventually become decodable and thus, usable. It’s just extremely necessary to improve the way we obtain this data. Conceptual analysis and specification of Morgan’s metaphors using the CAST method Taken from: Gazendam, Henk W.M. (). using public resources for the advantage of specific groups; it promotes inefficiency in organizations." (Perrow, 13) According to the machine metaphor, an organization is a machine consisting of. “The most appropriate metaphors suggest a usage or experience without enforcing the limitations of the real-world object or action on which they’re based.” They do seem to be following this to an extent. iOS apps aren’t being limited by the physical limitations of the mechanical-age representations, but is their visual design affected?
shooting it with a high powered rifle). Our main problem was that our funding source thought we were faking it. Disadvantages Of A Learning Organisation. essay intends to understand the attributes of the learning organisation and its core alphabetnyc.com this purpose the case example of Tesco is used.
The advantages and disadvantages of applying these practices of Tesco in other established organsiation have been critically analyzed with the help of specific examples..
What is a learning organ. For example, consider the widely used product life-cycle concept in marketing. This biological metaphor suggests that products naturally arise, grow, mature and die, just as individuals do.
What is a machine? A machine is a device, tool, apparatus, equipment or several parts that have been assembled together to do or carry out a particular function or activity. Its main purpose is the make work easier.