Indian Reserve The concept of an Indian territory is the successor to the British Indian Reservea British North American territory established by the Royal Proclamation of that set aside land for use by the Native American people.
Imagine him, for example, as a young man on horseback. Almost without effort, the image conjures up full-blown narratives of buffalo hunts and mounted warfare. Make the "he" into a young woman and imagine romantic tragedies of forced marriage and unrequited love.
Make the Indian a wizened elder and see if you don't think of spiritual wonder and almost superhuman ecological communion. But don't forget that real people peer up from the depths of such timeless images.
And while the images can be easily moved to the Hollywood backlot, those real people are not so easily detached from the Great Plains themselves, for this difficult environment framed ongoing historical transformations in Native political organization, social relations, economy, and culture.
Along with the nomadic bison hunting popularized in the movies, Native Americans engaged in raiding, trading, pastoralism, agriculture, diplomacy, politics, religious innovation and syncretism, warfare, migration, wage labor, lawsuits, lobbying, and gaming.
Through these adaptive strategies, the Plains peoples worked to protect and enhance their political power and their ability to sustain themselves economically, and to maintain their cultural distinctiveness. Longevity in the Plains Although some peoples came to the Plains earlier than others, Native Americans have lived there for a long time.
Evidence from the Agate Basin site in eastern Wyoming, for example, indicates that humans lived in the Plains at least as early as B. Radiocarbon dating of material from the Lewisville site near Dallas, Texas, suggests Indians and their precursors may have been in the Plains for at least 38, years.
The oral histories of some tribes refer to long-extinct mammoths and other megafauna.
Some scholars assert that the Sioux peoples originated in the Great Lakes region and only began moving onto the Plains in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.
Many Lakotas, however, trace the origins of their people to Wind Cave in the Black Hills and suggest that they were simply in the middle of a long, slow migration home after living elsewhere for a time.
Clarity on this issue will probably not be forthcoming. Environmental Adaptations Their extended tenure in the Plains allowed Native peoples to experience significant alterations in the environment. Between 11, and 11, precipitation declined, the range of temperatures increased, and free-flowing streams began to turn into small lakes and marshes, eventually becoming part of the expanding grassland.
Species adapted to the wetter world—such as mammoths, camels, and horses—died out, opening ecological niches in the Plains grassland. Most of these niches were filled by bison, which were becoming smaller and more mobile in order to be more effective in the drier climate.
Plains peoples adjusted to these changes as well. Around the time that the larger game disappeared, nomadic hunters shifted from Clovis-style spear points and arrowheads to the smaller Folsom points and heads, which were used until about b.
Like more recent Native peoples, Folsom hunters and their successors depended heavily upon the bison and relied upon the more sophisticated social organization necessary for group hunting. Such organization allowed for the creation and use of "buffalo jumps," a large funnel of trees, rocks, poles, and people designed to channel stampeding bison over a cliff.
Plains hunters used buffalo jumps like the Head-Smashed-In site in southwestern Alberta as early as 5, years ago. Along with the bison, Indian hunters' prey included deer, elk, and other smaller game.
Plains residents began experimenting with pottery and more sedentary villages at least as early as 2, years ago.
Ancestors of the Mandans and Hidatsas eventually settled in fortified villages along the Missouri River, where they raised corn, beans, and squash.
These villages generally ranged in size from ten to ninety lodges and were built from bracing poles and packed earthen cover.
Between spring planting and fall harvest, the villagers probably left the river's bottomland to hunt bison. Some of the crops these villagers grew became part of the extensive trade networks that linked the horticulturalists with Plains hunters and with peoples outside the Plains.
Both material goods agricultural products, dried meat, flint, and animal hides and cultural products songs and dances traded hands. Migrations While the rise of sedentary villages and agriculture stood out as a key way that Plains peoples adapted to and shaped their environment, migration played an equally important role in the lives of many Indians.
It seems that Plains societies were both amalgamating and splitting apart, and that mobility constituted a common response to both social and environmental factors. The groups that came to be known as Apaches, for example, separated from people in the Northern Plains as early as A.
They moved south, sojourning in Nebraska before moving into the Southern Plains between and By the late s they and their Kiowa allies had staked out a territory ranging from northwestern Texas to Wyoming and the Black Hills. At the same time, Shoshones moved east from the Great Basin to eastern Montana.An eyewitness account of a capture and escape from Plains Indians in the Old West.
Plains Indian Horse Culture History Spanish Horses Pictures Maps By the end of the seventeen hundreds, the Indian horse had reached most of the Rocky Mountains and Plains Indians.
An extensive Indian trade network existed between the Indian tribes decades before explorers and fur traders reached the Missouri. A SIMPLE REQUEST Many of our files are unique and/or copyrighted by The Center For World Indigenous Studies and The Fourth World Documentation Project.
 The Christic Institute was given an unprecedented million-dollar fine for daring to bring the lawsuit. See a brief description of what happened to them in Jonathan Vankin and John Whelan's 50 Greatest Conspiracies of all Time, pp. Event. Date. Global Population Statistics. The Spanish “Reconquest” of the Iberian peninsula ends in January with the conquest of Granada, the last city held by the Moors.
At this time Mandan culture was one of the richest of the Plains; the tribe hosted many prominent European and American travelers, including American explorers Lewis and Clark, Prussian scientist Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied, and artists Karl Bodmer and George Catlin.